The predictions of the November 1990 CIA report about a coming bloody civil war in Yugoslavia should come true sooner than expected.

On June 25, 1991, the Yugoslav republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence. Civil war broke out two days later.

During these critical weeks, the death-struggling Soviet Union rebelled for the last time. Loyal supporters of the Soviet Empire tried to overthrow President Mikhail Gorbachev on August 18, 1991. After Boris Yeltsin, President of the Soviet Republic of Russia, called on the population to resist, the putschists capitulated after three days. The republics of Georgia, Estonia, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declared their independence by the end of August.

These examples were followed on September 18 by the Yugoslav republic of Macedonia. In response to Yugoslavia, shaken by civil war-like fighting, the UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo. The Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared itself sovereign on October 15, amid the protest of the Serbian minority.

At the end of November 1991 the Belgrade government officially asked for a UN peacekeeping force to be deployed to establish buffer zones between the warring parties. While the EC continued its economic sanctions against the Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro, the EC foreign ministers decided on December 17th in Brussels to recognize the other Yugoslav republics under international law.

With the dissolution of the USSR on December 25, 1991, eight former Soviet republics joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). As the last official act, the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev handed over the command of the strategic nuclear weapons to Russian President Boris Yeltsin and had the Kremlin lower the red flag.

NATO not only recognizes the primary instrument of Western defense and security policy, but above all the option for US influence and participation in European security affairs

no second army in the western world was affected, as the threat from a communist Soviet Union perceived in the west led to its establishment in 1955. Strategy and training were thus directly linked to this east-facing “threat perception”.

Now the justification for the Bundeswehr no longer existed. Thus, the unified Germany could consequently have dissolved its Bundeswehr. But that didn’t seem to be in the interests of the overseas sponsor. Since the USA had been preparing and implementing the transformation of its armed forces towards globally mobile operational forces since 1987, the Bundeswehr also began to reorient itself and subsequently to restructure.

In the phase of German unification and the reorganization of the political situation in Europe on the basis of the American ideas of a New World Order, the NATO strategy was revised.

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